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Lost and found animal help topics

Have you lost or found an animal? Search our help topics for what to do next.

Laws & enforcement in your community

The BC SPCA has a legal obligation to provide animal guardians with “an opportunity to relieve the animal’s distress.”

The objective of every investigation is to relieve and prevent the distress of an animal through education, cooperation and, if necessary, prosecution under the law.

Initially, an investigator may issue notices to a guardian that he must seek medical attention for his animal. Notices can also apply to an animal’s environment, such as building a raised and insulated shelter.

The investigator will give the animal guardian a time-frame for compliance, and if he or she fails to comply with notices, the investigator can either issue further notices allowing the guardian more time, or apply for a search warrant to seize the animal.

Acting under the law, the BC SPCA is not empowered to remove animals from private property without a search warrant unless those animals would not survive without immediate medical intervention.

Animals may be lacking adequate food, shelter and veterinary care, or even be sick and in pain, but unless they are in immediate danger of dying they are not in critical distress under the law.

Sad tethered up dog on a chain in a wooden kennel

The BC SPCA can’t stop a cull happening in your community, unless the methods are inhumane under the law. If you witness an animal in distress during a cull, call our Provincial Call Centre at 1-855-622-7722. Document evidence by taking videos or photographs, but do not trespass on private property.

The BC SPCA is opposed to culling animals when there is no evidence to support it, or it can’t be done humanely. International and BC SPCA experts agree there are many steps that must first be taken to justify ethical wildlife control.

Deer culls

The BC SPCA recommends using non-lethal strategies to solve human-deer conflict. Communities should aim to prevent conflict by educating residents about co-existing with urban deer. Culling is only a temporary solution and should not be a default practice.

Read our position statement on urban deer.

Download our urban deer pamphlet (PDF).

Wild deer on dried grass buck and young deer looking at each other
Photo credit: Karen Guy

Wolf culls

Wolf culls in B.C. and Alberta have drawn significant criticism. Experts criticize the inhumane methods and lack of evidence that killing wolves will save caribou or other species. Culling can break up wolf pack structures and create an imbalance with other species in the area. Even with skilled shooters, shooting wolves from helicopters can cause stress and death may not be quick and painless.

Read our position statement on predator control.

Photo by Grayson Pettigrew

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act outlines generally accepted practices of animal management as a reason by which distress is legally acceptable.

Generally accepted practices of animal management are ways of handling or caring for animals that are commonly accepted by society. Sometimes these practices still cause pain, suffering and distress to animals. If the practices haven’t been written down in any official document, it is up to experts like veterinarians and leaders in the relevant industry (such as animal farming, sled dogs, animal breeding or horse racing) to give expert testimony in court when there is an animal neglect or cruelty case.

Animals are better represented when practices are written and agreed to by a committee of experts that includes animal welfare experts. We call these documents ‘Standards‘ or ‘Codes of Practice‘.

Section 72 of the BC Motor Vehicle Act and Section 9.3 of the PCA Act prohibit the transport of an unsecured pet in the back of a pick-up truck. It is against the law and dangerous for a pet.

If you see a dog that is unattached in the back of a pick-up truck, call 911. Record the information about the vehicle so that you have it on hand for your call:

  • Licence plate number
  • Make and model of vehicle
  • Description of dog

What is the best way to secure a pet in a vehicle?

Unrestrained pets are a major distraction to drivers and can cause vehicle collisions. In a crash, pets become flying objects and can cause serious injury to themselves and others.

  • Put the dog inside the vehicle with you and use a secured crate or a dog seatbelt to restrain your pet.
  • If you must transport your pet in the back of a truck, the safest method is in a secured crate in the centre of your truck box.

Find out more about transporting your pet safely.

If you suspect an animal is in distress, call the BC SPCA Provincial Call Centre: 1-855-622-7722.

A BC SPCA Special Provincial Constable will follow up on the complaint and have educational materials to help owners transition their dog inside. If the animal is found to be in distress, the constable will issue notices to the owner.

Sad dog outdoors tethered on a chain

Outdoor dogs and distress

When our Animal Protection Officers visit a property, they must determine if the animal is in distress.

The definition of distress is covered under the legislation that governs the BC SPCA, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act):

  • deprived of adequate food, water, shelter, ventilation, light, space, exercise or veterinary care
    • kept in conditions that are unsanitary
    • not protected from excessive heat or cold
  • injured, sick, in pain or suffering, or
  • abused or neglected

Sad tethered up dog on a chain in a wooden kennel

“Adequate” can be a subjective term. Officers use the following definitions to help clarify the term:

  • Adequate water: Access to clean, potable drinking water at all times
  • Adequate food: A sufficient quantity of suitable food to allow for normal growth and the maintenance of normal body weight and food receptacles that are clean, disinfected and located as to avoid contamination by excreta
  • Adequate shelter: A properly constructed shelter that ensures protection from heat, cold and dampness, and is appropriate to the weight and protective outer coat of the animal.

Learn more about municipal bylaws for chained and outdoor animals in B.C.


The BC SPCA derives its powers to investigate and take action in instances of animal cruelty from the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act).

We are the only animal welfare organization in B.C. with the authority to enforce laws relating to animal cruelty and to recommend charges to Crown Counsel for the prosecution of those who inflict suffering on animals.

Sad dog outdoors looking through the hole of a fence

Criminal Code of Canada

It is a crime in Canada to intentionally harm animals. Anyone who deliberately harms animals can be charged under the Criminal Code of Canada.

The Criminal Code of Canada deals specifically with cruelty to animals in sections 444 to 447.

Our Cruelty Investigations team can recommend charges for Crown Counsel for the prosecution of individuals who inflict suffering on animals under the Criminal Code of Canada.

Ginger kitten close up shot looking sad

The BC SPCA supports force-free humane training methods based on the science of how animals learn. We do not support training methods or equipment that cause anxiety, fear, distress, pain or injury.

Learn more about the BC SPCA position statement on animal training.

Training should be fun for you and your dog!

Choose a trainer who uses force-free humane training methods. Force-free humane trainers will never use fear or pain on purpose to train your dog. They will support and encourage you as you learn to train your dog.

Humane = humane treatment for you and your dog.

The BC SPCA’s AnimalKind accreditation is currently piloting standards (PDF) for dog training. AnimalKind will help us connect dog owners with trainers who use verified humane methods.

Sign up to find out when AnimalKind dog trainers are available in your community.

If there are no AnimalKind dog trainers in your community, check out our pilot dog training standards (PDF) or use our checklist below to help you choose a trainer.

Checklist for choosing a trainer

1.) Training method

What to look for

  • Force-free, reward-based/positive reinforcement (R+) training methods
  • Humane training methods that focus on rewarding/reinforcing what you want your dog to do and using motivators like treats, food, play (what the dog finds motivating) and not forcing a dog to do something

What to avoid

  • Training methods that use harsh verbal or physical corrections
  • Methods that cause anxiety, fear or pain to punish your dog for unwanted behaviours
  • Equipment or training tools that cause anxiety, fear or pain such as bark or shock collars, prongs, choke chains or sprays (even unscented) and are used to punish your dog for unwanted behaviour

2. ) Trainer

What to look for

  • Good teacher who can explain and demonstrate the behaviour they’re teaching
  • Teacher good at coaching you on how to train your dog
  • Sees both you and your dog as learners
  • Patient and supportive coach
  • Can adapt humane methods for each dog

What to avoid

  • Someone who can’t explain the behaviour they’re teaching and why
  • Anyone who can’t explain how dogs learn
  • Someone who calls themselves a balanced trainer (using both rewards and methods that cause fear or pain)
  • Trainers who adamantly refuse to use food as a motivator

3.) Education

What to look for

  • Trainer who continues to learn through ongoing education
  • Someone who is always trying to improve knowledge and skills

What to avoid

  • Trainers who feel they don’t need to take courses or update their knowledge (they feel they’ve done this for years and know how to train)

Note: Currently there are no standards in dog training, which means anyone can call themselves a “professional” or “humane” dog trainer with no or minimal education.

4. ) Respectful

What to look for

  • Trainer who shows both you and your dog respect
  • Someone who has patience and explains to you that training will take time and patience
  • Someone who helps you learn

What to avoid

  • Trainers who use verbal or physical force to train (alpha roll, pinch, pinning, pushing into position or moving dog around, hanging on choke chain, helicoptering, prong/pinch collar, intimidation – staring or moving dog around with body, corrections)
  • Trainers who make you feel bad about your skill or the time it’s taking to train your dog

5.) Observe a class

What to look for

  • Trainer who lets you observe a class (make sure you do before enrolling)
  • Dogs and people having fun in class
  • Dogs look happy
  • Methods used in class are force-free and humane
  • Trainer is respectful and can clearly explain and demo behaviours they’re training and why
  • Trainer has at least three assistants for a class of 10 (the more assistants the better)
  • Trainer is encouraging and coaching people
  • They’re asking students questions
  • Class looks fun!
  • Young pups and dogs are in separate classes

What to avoid

  • Trainers who will not let you sit in on a class before enrolling (ask yourself why)
  • No assistants
  • No treats allowed
  • Not respectful of students or their dog
  • Trainer reprimands dog owner for not following instructions
  • Yells or is harsh with a dog or owner

6. ) Consumer alert

Dog training is unregulated

This means anyone can call themselves a “professional” or “humane” trainer with no education after watching some online videos or by taking some courses.

As a consumer of dog training you need to be aware that training methods and tools can be misused, ineffective or cause harm. You must ask a dog trainer for transparency. What are the techniques they are using and instructing you to use on your dog. Ask them to describe their methods and ask if there are less harmful alternatives. Get a written consent form.

Ask all trainers:

  • What will you do if my dog gets it right?
  • What will you do if my dog gets it wrong?
  • Are there side effects to your methods and if so what are they?

I don’t feel comfortable with my trainer’s techniques

Ask questions

  • Are there alternatives that are less harmful/stressful for your dog?
  • Are there side-effects and what are they?


  • Using treats – your dog looks at your pocket all the time
  • Using a prong or shock collar – your dog may experience fear, pain and/or injury

When a dog is fearful or stressed it makes it hard for them to learn. Think of when you were learning a new language or how to play piano. How much would you learn if you were stressed or afraid?

  • If you still don’t feel comfortable, don’t continue

Note: The BC SPCA’s AnimalKind accreditation is currently piloting standards for dog training.

Playful smiling happy dog lying on side on the grass

7.)  No guarantees

What to look for

  • Trainer who clearly states they cannot guarantee they will ‘fix’, ‘modify’ or ‘make your dog better’ as a result of their training
  • They are supportive and want to ensure satisfaction with their services

What to avoid

  • Trainer who guarantees results of training
  • Anyone who states they can fix all dog behaviour problems

8. ) Vaccinations

What to look for

  • Trainers who try to protect all dogs/puppies when in a class situation
  • Trainers who require vaccines
  • Sick dogs/puppies not allowed in class

Check with your veterinarian to ensure they’re comfortable with the vaccines required for class (both for adult dogs and especially puppies).

What to avoid

  • Trainer who says your puppy or dog doesn’t need vaccines to join a class
  • Trainers who allow sick dogs/pups to come to class
  • Mixing pups and dogs in class

9. ) Problem behaviours

Some behaviour problems are caused by underlying health issues. Contact your veterinarian if you see changes in your dog’s behaviour.

What to look for

  • Trainers who recognize some behaviours may be flags for a medical issue and ask you to contact your veterinarian
  • Someone who will refer to your vet for diagnosis of a behaviour problem
  • Trainers who work closely with veterinarians to modify behaviour

What to avoid

  • Trainers who diagnose medical issues
  • Anyone who recommends medications or gives medical advice and is not a licensed veterinarian
  • Anyone who tells you not to speak with your veterinarian when your dog has a behaviour issue
  • Trainers who say they can fix all behaviour problems

Important to remember

  • There are different ways training is offered. A trainer might come to your home, or you might attend classes, or your might board your dog while someone trains him. Choose what is right for you and your dog.
  • If you’re not comfortable, ask questions.
  • There are no guarantees; behaviour is variable.
  • Training your dog should be fun for you and your dog.
  • It’s OK to say please stop

Adapted from American Veterinary Society of Animal Behaviour AVSAB ‘How to Chose a Trainer’.

because training your dog shouldn't hurt

If you have evidence that leads you to believe your pet was stolen, contact the local police or RCMP non-emergency line. Permanent identification, such as tattoos or microchips, can help authorities track your animal.

Tabby cat with long hair wearing collar id being pet at home lying on a couch



We’re sorry to hear that you’re experiencing this. In most instances you would contact your city/municipality. Depending on where you live, your noise complaint may be taken care of by general by-laws or may fall specifically under the animal control by-laws.

The BC SPCA is not able to provide details on active investigations into animal cruelty cases, as doing so may compromise any potential charges or other legal actions we may take.

Close up shot of green eyed cat looking sad

While the BC SPCA is the only animal welfare organization in BC that can recommend charges under both the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act) and the Criminal Code of Canada, it is up to Crown Counsel to prosecute and for the judge to determine sentencing upon conviction.

Penalties for individuals convicted under the PCA Act or Criminal Code are as follows:

  • A person who commits an offence under the PCA Act is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $75,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or to both.
  • Under the Criminal Code, a person who commits an offence directly related to one of the sections on animals: is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to a fine not exceeding $10,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than 18 months or to both.

As BC SPCA Special Provincial Constables enforce the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act), they must act in accordance with the legislation. The PCA Act does not permit BC SPCA Special Provincial Constables to search for evidence or remove animals without a warrant.

Many investigations can be conducted without a search warrant. Upon respectful request, animal guardians will usually permit us to view their animals and, if the animals are in distress, guardians often comply with notices provided.

It is only when our Special Provincial Constables are denied access to the animals, or if the guardians are unable or unwilling to comply with notices and relieve the distress of the animals, that it is necessary to obtain a search warrant. In order for a warrant to be granted, there must be reasonable grounds to do so and there must be animals in distress or an offence committed against them.

The only time BC SPCA Special Provincial Constables may remove an animal without a warrant is when the animal is in critical distress and not located within a dwelling house.

PCA Act: Authority to enter without a warrant

14 (1) In this section, “critical distress” means distress in an animal of such a nature that
(a) immediate veterinary treatment cannot prolong the animal’s life,
(b) prolonging the animal’s life would result in the animal suffering unduly, or
(c) immediate veterinary intervention is necessary to prevent the imminent death of the animal.
(2) An authorized agent who believes on reasonable grounds that there is an animal in critical distress in any premises, other than a dwelling house, or in any vehicle, aircraft or vessel, may enter the premises, vehicle, aircraft or vessel without a warrant for the purpose of taking any action authorized by this Act to relieve that critical distress.

Further, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search and seizure. If the BC SPCA performed an unreasonable search, it would have serious consequences for the outcome of the case, the animal(s) involved and the Special Provincial Constables performing the search.

The BC SPCA is the only animal welfare organization that can investigate animal cruelty as established by the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act and the Constitution and Bylaws of the Society (PDF). We are guided by our Code of Ethics (PDF).

Cruelty Investigation Officers

Animal Control agencies enforce city/municipal animal by-laws and, in some cities/municipalities, operate their own shelter. By-laws may include stray dogs, leash laws and licensing.

In some BC SPCA shelters, we are contracted by the city/municipality to enforce the by-laws or kennel stray dogs and/or cats. Find your local shelter to determine what services we provide in your community.

Please call the BC SPCA Provincial Call Centre at 1-855-6BC-SPCA (1-855-622-7722) to report animal cruelty.


Yes. All calls are kept confidential and our animal protection officers will not release your information to the person you are reporting.

The only time your information could be released is in the event of a court order, legal proceedings or if we ask you to provide a statement to obtain a search warrant.

Providing us with your contact information allows our animal protection officers to contact you with additional questions, if necessary. If you wish to be contacted regarding the outcome of the investigation, we can only do so if we have your contact information, otherwise no follow-up information will be available to you at any time.


Yes. When you make a report with one of our call centre operators, let them know that you would like to report anonymously and they will not take your personal information.

All of our calls are confidential and the only time your information could be released is in the event of a court order, legal proceedings or if we ask you to provide a statement so that we can obtain a search warrant.

Providing us with your contact information allows our animal protection officers to contact you with additional questions, if necessary. If you wish to be contacted regarding the outcome of the investigation, we can only do so if we have your contact information, otherwise no follow-up information will be available to you at any time.

Sleepy relaxing golden retriever dog curled up on a couch indoors

The BC SPCA does not have the lawful authority to close facilities, businesses or operations. Our Special Constables must investigate in accordance with the PCA Act and follow procedures and protocols for investigation, which include working with the owners to relieve animals of any distress. If the owners are unable or unwilling to relieve distress, our constables may apply for a warrant to seize the animals.

If the animals in question are not in distress or the owner has taken the necessary steps to relieve the distress, the BC SPCA has no lawful authority to remove the animals.

The animal protection officer may check back in with the owners to view the animals within a set time period, however our officers cannot continually monitor a particular animal (and owner) without reasonable grounds to do so. We rely on members of the public to be our eyes and ears and to report concerns to us if/when they observe any animals in distress.

When the BC SPCA seizes an animal, the animal guardian is provided with a Notice of Disposition, which details the procedure for disputing the seizure. Anyone wishing to dispute a seizure must do so in writing within 14 days of receiving the Notice of Disposition. If the animal guardian does not dispute the seizure within 14 days, the BC SPCA will gain custody of the animal. However, the animal guardian will be responsible for the costs of care of the animal while in our care.

If the animal guardian disputes the seizure, the BC SPCA’s Chief Prevention and Enforcement Officer will review and consider the case, and will decide whether to return the animal (based on the animal’s best interests) under some type of care agreement.

If the decision is made to refuse to return the animal, the animal guardian has the right to appeal the decision to the BC Farm Industry Review Board.

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act) is the provincial animal welfare legislation that outlines required standards of care. The BC SPCA was created under the auspices of the PCA Act, and that’s what gives it the power to investigate and take action on animal cruelty cases. It also details the BC SPCA’s constitution and powers of inspection and enforcement.

Cruelty investigative Department staff in uniform walking dog outdoors on misty day

The BC SPCA is the only animal welfare organization in B.C. with the authority to enforce laws related to animal cruelty. In 2008, we successfully campaigned for amendments to the Act that significantly increased protection for abused and neglected animals in B.C.

We continue to propose and support amendments to strengthen the Act. For example, in July 2015, the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture announced a new regulation to adopt the Codes of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle into the PCA Act, specifically outlining what is considered a ‘generally accepted practice’. The inclusion of the Codes complemented our work with the BC Dairy Association, the BC Milk Marketing Board and the dairy industry to improve the welfare of dairy cattle.

In February 2017, the BC SPCA applauded the government of B.C’s move to target irresponsible dog and cat breeders. The proposed amendments to the PCA Act would enable the B.C. government to regulate commercial breeders through either a registration or licensing system that will help ensure commercial cat and dog breeders are treating animals with the respect and care they deserve.

The BC SPCA derives its powers to investigate and take action in instances of animal cruelty from the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (PCA Act).

We are the only animal welfare organization in BC that has the authority to enforce laws relating to animal cruelty. Our Cruelty Investigations team can also recommend charges under both the PCA Act as well as the Criminal Code of Canada to Crown Counsel for the prosecution of individuals who inflict suffering on animals.

In order for us to recommend charges to Crown Counsel, it must be in the public’s interest to prosecute, and there must be a substantial likelihood of conviction. Ultimately, it is Crown Counsel’s decision on whether or not charges are pursued.

Sad dog outdoors tethered on a chain

Investigating reports of animal cruelty and seizing animals in distress is both rewarding and challenging. It’s a job that requires a unique set of skills and the right personality type.

The best way to find out if it’s the right job for you is to start by working in a BC SPCA shelter to gain experience shadowing Special Provincial Constables and participate in initial investigations.

Currently, we employ 30 full-time, one part-time and four auxiliary Special Provincial Constables throughout the province. Should an opening become available, the job opportunity will be posted on our website.

To learn more, download a description of qualifications, experience and skills required to become a Special Provincial Constable (PDF) with the BC SPCA.

Step 1 – Gathering information

When the BC SPCA Provincial Call Centre (1-855-622-7722) receives a cruelty complaint, a call centre operator will gather information from the caller, including but not limited to:

  • The caller’s name, phone number and address (this information is kept confidential): While we do accept anonymous reports, contact information is very important in the event that the animal protection officer who investigates the complaint has any questions or difficulty locating the property. Also, if legal action is pursued, we may require a statement.
  • The person of interest’s information: Address and name (if known) as well as physical description and whether the caller believes they might be violent.
  • A detailed description of the animal(s) and the concerns. Also location of animals if different from the person of interest’s address.
  • Date and time of the incident or when the animal was last observed.

All of these questions are necessary to ensure we provide the animal protection officers with as much information as possible to assist them in their investigation.

Step 2 – Investigating the complaint

An animal protection officer will review the complaint and attend the premises.

Our response time will depend on the number and priority of calls at the time, as well as the location of the animals reported. The officers will attend as soon as they are able, however it is important to remember that the BC SPCA is a non-profit organization with only 30 full time officers for the whole province.

If the animal protection officer attends and finds the complaint to be unfounded, we will close the file with no further action. If the complaint is valid and there are animals in distress, the officer must give the owner the opportunity to relieve the distress within a reasonable period of time. In doing so the officer would issue the owner with notice(s).

Step 3 – Resolving the issue

If the owner complies within the provided time period, we will close the file. If the owner does not comply within the time period, the animal protection officer may either issue new notices, provide additional time (depending on the circumstances) or apply for a warrant to seize the animal(s).

Dog from puppy mill cruelty before and after

A ban (or prohibition) on owning animals is one of the most effective ways to prevent someone who has been convicted of animal cruelty from simply acquiring more animals.

Prohibitions are enforced in part through public reporting and in part through BC SPCA Special Constable monitoring. Given the media attention that often follows a person’s conviction of animal cruelty and ban on owning animals, we often find that neighbours or people living in the same community as the former animal owner are more than happy to report to us should this person obtain new animals. Our constables also do random inspections when possible.

If you are aware of someone who has a ban and you know that they also own or care for an animal, please call the BC SPCA Provincial Call Centre: 1 (855) 6BC SPCA (1-855-622-7722).

Learn more about our cruelty investigations.

The BC SPCA recognizes that pet-friendly housing is limited in B.C. To make it easier to demonstrate responsible guardianship and work together to create humane communities, we have developed resources to help renters demonstrate themselves as good guardians and also make it easy for strata councils and property owners to effectively manage their buildings and suites.

Happy mixed breed dog lying down being pet by smiling woman

Learn more about finding pet-friendly housing for you and your pet.

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Sad lost dog